Site Map

THE ARYAN CHRIST: THE SECRET LIFE OF CARL JUNG

Chapter 10: Edith Rockefeller McCormick -- The Rockefeller Psychoanalyst

Without her, he might never have succeeded. With her, he became known to the entire world. Yet despite her own celebrity, few know of the fateful collaboration of the Rockefeller psychoanalyst and C. G. Jung.

Edith Rockefeller McCormick is a mystery to her own family even today. She was the troubled daughter of John D. Rockefeller, whose personal fortune during the First World War was thought to comprise about 2 percent of the gross national product of the United States.

In 1913, Edith arrived in Zurich for treatment with Jung. The path that she undertook with Jung led her away from the responsibilities of marriage and motherhood and into a magical realm of gods and astrology and spiritualism. After 1913, Edith became a stranger to her father and siblings and even to her own husband and children. Indeed, Jung encouraged this separation from her old life and her compensatory integration into his community of disciples. Edith became an analyst in the Jungian mode, a magical healer who interpreted the dreams of her patients and pointed out the divine elements in their artistic productions.

Jung's magical world must have been tremendously attractive to Edith at that time. She had suffered the loss of two children and had withdrawn emotionally from her husband and from her surviving children, still quite young. She needed help and found it in Zurich. She came alive for the first time. Her former life, her former country, could not compare with the opportunity to participate in the salvation of the world and the birthing of a new god.

Edith Rockefeller McCormick remained in Zurich until 1921.

Misfortune among the fortunate

Of all the children of John D. Rockefeller, Edith always seemed the most unhappy. She was an intellectual by nature but as a woman and socialite at the turn of the century found few opportunities to satisfy her interests. She had few friends and rarely joined in the Rockefeller family activities unless her presence was required. She preferred being alone. She did not reveal her emotions, often seemed distant and taciturn, and carried herself with the superior attitude of someone critical and generally displeased. Rarely did she risk a smile or dispense compliments or make small talk, and her unwillingness or inability to extend herself often threw others off guard or left them cold. Perhaps all of this was a cover for her overpowering fears of external reality, fears that exploded into severe agoraphobia in her mid-thirties. These personality traits were most like her father's.

Naturally, she married a man who was her complete opposite. Harold Fowler McCormick was born with a first-class temperament and a second-rate intellect. He was a peacemaker, a placater, a surface skimmer. He thrived in a world of country clubs and racquetball tournaments, yachting competitions and philanthropic galas. He glided through Princeton University and received his A.B. there in 1895. He was being groomed to be the heir to his father's fortune and to command the empire that the International Harvester Company would become. This was a suitable track for Harold, for he was loyal, trustworthy, and eager to please. His polished social graces and buoyant superficiality made him the quintessential American business executive. Everyone liked Harold McCormick.

His father was Cyrus Hall McCormick (1809-84), the inventor of the McCormick reaper, which revolutionized harvesting. Cyrus was a brooding, unapproachable man. Born into near poverty, he developed a hard shell that aided his acquisition of fame and fortune. He died when Harold was twelve years old. Harold's mother, Nancy (Nettie) Fowler McCormick was deeply religious and an obsessively intrusive and overbearing mother. Of her five children, two were insane: her daughter Mary Virginia and her son Stanley. Harold and his sister Anita -- another strong personality -- spent much of their adulthoods preoccupied with the medical care of their younger siblings. Harold's older brother Cyrus generally removed himself from such concerns. Harold led the family negotiations and continually made peace among his relatives and between the warring teams of physicians called in to treat his sister and brother. Stanley McCormick, in fact, was treated by many of the most famous psychiatrists in the world, and the records of his treatment make him arguably the most fascinating case history of the twentieth century. [1]

The newspapers, savvy to the unspoken business deal about to take place, shouted with glee when Harold and Edith announced their engagement. They called Edith "the Princess of Standard Oil," and Harold "the Prince of International Harvester." Harold and Edith were both twenty-three when they were married on November 26, 1895. She was described as a "demure little blonde, with a high forehead, grey eyes, and a mass of ringlets under her hat." [2] It was a quiet affair, a private ceremony in a parlor of the Buckingham Hotel in Manhattan. Harold had graduated from Princeton that May and had already been provided a position in his father's company. By 1898 he was a vice president, and in 1918 he became the president of International Harvester. Educated by private tutors, Edith had freely followed her own interests. Her first actual job would be as a psychoanalyst during the First World War. Harold became close to Edith's father, and throughout the rest of his life -- even after he and Edith were divorced -- he wrote regularly to John D. Rockefeller and addressed him as "Father." Edith, for her part, had little in common with Harold's parents and avoided them whenever possible.

Edith had an analytical mind; Harold's tended toward synthesis and operated through the filter of feelings. Focused rational thought was foreign to him. He read newspapers, not books. Edith swam, skated, rode a horse and bicycle, but largely preferred to stay indoors, reading and studying. Harold could never play enough tennis and racquetball. No wonder he and Edith soon realized they had a difficult time communicating with one another. Edith's inwardness was reinforced by their inability to connect.

Their first child was nonetheless born in 1897. John D. Rockefeller McCormick was the apple of his grandfather's eye, but in 1901 he died from scarlet fever. Other children followed. Harold Fowler McCormick, Jr. -- called Fowler -- was born in 1898 and followed by three sisters: Muriel in 1902, Editha in 1903, and Mathilde in 1905. Editha's death a year after her birth propelled Edith into a depression from which she could not recover. She felt absolutely nothing most of the time, but seemed anxious -- "nervous," Harold called it -- and had difficulty sleeping. She was up at night and slept during the day. Maids and governesses filled the void as she struggled with her moods. She was afraid to venture far from their mansion on Lake Shore Drive in Chicago, a massive gray stone house with a conical tower that Edith herself had nicknamed "the bastion." Harold's generally sunny disposition did much to counteract the harmful effects of Edith's slow decline on their children, but they always regarded her as somewhat of a stranger.

Edith had been quite active in Chicago's social life prior to her son's death, but became less so afterward. As the primary benefactor of the Chicago Opera, Edith would don her $2 million pearl necklace and host brief dinners for her select guests just before the opening of each new opera, each course timed perfectly by a jeweled clock beside her plate. But Edith could not maintain her position as Chicago's premier hostess. Between 1905 and 1907, she suffered from tuberculosis of the kidney, which eventually went into remission after numerous rest cures. In 1911, she planned a cotillion, but suddenly and inexplicably recalled all 120 invitations. Rumors spread quickly about her bizarre behavior. Many speculated that she was suffering a nervous breakdown. The gossip was very close to the truth.

Harold soon realized that she was in need of professional medical attention. His experience with managing the care of his insane siblings helped him search for physicians for Edith, but she was stubborn and often refused his suggestions for treatment. The few she did try -- mainly at resorts for wealthy neurasthenics -- did not make much of a difference.

One of the remedies that Harold insisted upon was a trip through Hungary (primarily Transylvania) in July and August of 1910. [3] The excursion would be part pleasure, part business, as Harold scouted sites for a new factory. Edith finally agreed, traveling by automobile across Europe. She found the traveling exhausting, and wanted to be back home in "the bastion." Upon her return to America, Edith passed straight through New York and directly on to Chicago, missing her own mother's birthday celebrations at the original Rockefeller mansion in Cleveland. As usual, Harold was left to smooth over any misunderstandings caused by Edith's asocial behavior. "Dear Father," Harold wrote to John D. Rockefeller on September 22, 1911, "It is a matter of deep regret that I was unable to be present at mother's celebration and more of a regret that Edith was not able to be present. Please be assured, and it is almost unnecessary for me to say so, that Edith was deeply sorry that she could not come on to Cleveland. She is now taking a rest at [their home at] 1000 Lake Shore Drive, isolating herself from everybody and spending from five to eight hours a day out in the air and I think this will do her more good than anything else at the present time if she will only keep it up long enough." [4]

Refusing to give up on Edith, Harold began making inquiries among his extended family. The most promising referral came from Medill, Harold's cousin from the branch of the McCormick family that owned and operated the Chicago Tribune. Medill spoke highly of a Swiss psychiatrist who had treated him for depression and alcoholism: C. G. Jung.

Medill had first approached Jung in Zurich in late 1908. [5] Impressed with the new treatment known as psychoanalysis, during the first week of July 1909 he attempted unsuccessfully to have a consultation with Freud. When Jung was in New York that September he spent many hours with Medill, at one point advising him, as we have seen, to become polygamous to save his sanity and his soul. The rich American was quite a catch for the fledgling psychoanalytic movement, and Jung and Freud were delighted with this trophy of their international success.

And Jung was soon reeling in an even bigger catch for psychoanalysis and for himself, a daughter of the man many considered to be the richest in the Western world: Edith.

***

As 1912 began, Edith had not emerged from seclusion after returning from the Hungarian trip two years earlier. But Harold was hopeful. "Edith is doing well in her determination to gut out a good many varied occupations, and she certainly is getting her life down to one of more natural easement." [6]

At some fateful point during the late spring of 1912, though, Edith learned of the legendary healing powers of C. G. Jung. The fantasy of going to Zurich to be treated by him began to take on an almost obsessive quality. She hoped Switzerland would be the promised land of her salvation. Without even meeting him, Edith began to think of Jung as her only savior.

But Harold wanted to try at least one more cure in America. He accompanied Edith to Ellenville, New York, for "a trial of treatment" at the clinic of a Dr. Foord. He reported on the situation to his mother. "Edith does not give herself up to the treatment as yet, but I think is gaining in her confidence, or indifference; that is she is doing a little more gracefully what she is asked to do." Edith was a difficult, noncompliant patient. "I shall stay here until such time as the doctor can form an opinion as to what he thinks he can do if Edith will cooperate." [7]

But Harold was well aware that Edith might never give her American physician a fighting chance. Her heart and soul already were in Zurich. And Harold was dead set against it.

For one who is ill or needs treatment, I think this place is fine. For one who is well, it is the slowest place in the world. I like Dr. Foord ever so much, and I think he can do wonders for Edith. But she finds it very hard indeed to submit to what is wanted. Just exactly as you put it in your letter. What she may have in mind is that after a trial here, it shall be pronounced a failure and that then we will all take a steamer, say 1st of August or thereabouts, and trot over to Switzerland. That in its entirety I do not stand for. If anybody goes over it shall be Edith and me alone. I don't think it right or fair to dislodge you all after you are comfortably settled.

I believe Edith now thinks that if she could toss this allover, that then she could get to Zurich. She disregards the fact that Jung would be absent for all the time until the last two or three weeks of our stay over there. If I had the courage to say or if it was right to say that the European trip is cancelled for this summer I believe it would be a great help in deciding Edith to stay here. [8]

While in Ellenville, Harold received a letter from Woodrow Wilson, then governor of New Jersey, who with the help of William Jennings Bryan had just become the Democratic nominee for president. "I feel sure he would make a safe and sane president," Harold wrote his father-in-law, and he passed along Wilson's personal missive requesting Harold's support. [9] (Medill was a friend of Wilson's opponents, President William H. Taft and Teddy Roosevelt.) Sailing to Europe to see Jung would remove Harold from the arena during a critical part of the campaign.

Edith finally submitted herself to Dr. Foord's treatment, and Harold felt confident enough to return to Chicago. Foord recognized the severity of Edith's phobias -- particularly her agoraphobia -- and recommended some commonsense measures to help her overcome their disabling effects. Edith then sent her mother-in-law the following telegram: "Can you send me your automobile and chauffeur without Harold's knowing it. The doctor wants me to begin to learn to get away from the house without fear. Edith." [10] Foord was soon discarded like so many of her previous physicians.

Three days after Edith sent that telegram, on September 7, 1912, C. G. Jung set sail for New York City. Edith's life was about to change forever.

Edith meets Dr. Jung

Edith had Jung on her mind, but so did Harold's mother and sister, though for an entirely different reason: Stanley. Nettie McCormick was staying at the Plaza Hotel in order to ask Jung to go to Santa Barbara, California, and assess the condition of her son. He suffered from the catatonic type of dementia praecox and was so unmanageable that he had been tied up with bed sheets since 1906. Jung wrote to Nettie on October 8, 1912, that he would be able to see Stanley McCormick in California "at the end of October." [11]

Upon receiving this information, Nettie returned to Chicago and contacted her daughter Anita McCormick Blaine in upstate New York. Would she agree to meet with Jung and discuss Stanley? "In the question of seeing Jung for S. my province would not be different from yours," Anita informed her mother. "What you should do is take the question to Dr. Favill [Stanley's primary physician]. I could not do otherwise." [12] But three days later, Harold begged Anita in a telegram to meet Jung. "Why don't you run down to New York and have a talk with Jung .... You would be able to form first impressions and he would give you his experiences and ideas. Believe your time would be well spent." [13] Stanley was not on his mind, but Edith. And Edith, still in Ellenville, emerged from her shell and for once took the initiative.

Edith invited Jung to the Rockefeller estate in Pocantico Hills for a visit and for some preliminary consultations. Unsubstantiated legend has it that Edith insisted that Jung move to America with his family and become her personal physician. She allegedly offered to buy a house for him and his family and pay him handsomely. Jung refused and instead insisted that Edith come to Zurich for long-term analysis with him. She agreed.

After Jung returned home in the first week of November, he sent Maria Moltzer to America to conduct a preliminary analysis of Edith. Moltzer probably left Zurich in December 1912 or January 1913. On February 2, 1913, Sigmund Freud wrote to Sandor Ferenczi, "Jung's letter [to Ferenczi] sounds somewhat elegiac; perhaps his Egeria has already left him. She should go to America to bring Rockefeller's daughter to Zurich." [14] Freud, suspecting that Jung was having an affair with his female assistant, refers to her as Egeria, a nymph in Roman mythology who was the lover of and adviser to the legendary king Numa Pompilius and who was the power behind the throne.

Perhaps this was a compromise that Jung negotiated with Edith. Moltzer was the only analyst completely loyal to him who spoke English fluently. In late 1912, Jung was still not clear about the loyalties of many in his circle, including the only American analyst who could have treated Edith-the New York psychoanalyst Beatrice Hinkle. Although she was really the only Jungian practicing in America at the time, Hinkle had eclectic tendencies. Furthermore, she was too independent. Moltzer was the better bait to keep Edith hooked until he could treat her himself.

Whether it was Dr. Foord's health spa, Dr. Jung's visit, or a trial of psychoanalysis with Maria Moltzer, Edith began to improve by the end of 1912 and gingerly reentered Chicago social life. She and Harold put their energies into a grand "coming-out" party for Edith to be held in Chicago at the end of January 1913.

1913

In the first week of February 1913 Edith left Chicago -- probably with Maria Moltzer -- and soon arrived in New York to spend the next several weeks preparing for her voyage to Switzerland. Moltzer was back in Zurich by the first week in March. Within just days of her arrival, Jung was on an ocean liner to New York. Moltzer's analysis had been a failure. Jung would bring Edith back to Zurich himself.

This new turn of events made Edith the subject of gossip between Sigmund Freud and his allies. "Jung has gone to America again for five weeks, to see a Rockefeller woman, so they say," Freud wrote to Ferenczi on March 7, 1913. [15] Ferenczi responded by flattering Freud and insulting Jung: "I would rather have granted you the summons to the Rockefellers," Ferenczi wrote on March 9. "Still -- the Americans don't deserve better." [16]

After almost three weeks of daily analytic sessions with Jung in New York, Edith enjoyed the same attention aboard their ocean liner. Edith, her two children, Fowler's tutor, and Muriel's governess all settled into a large suite of rooms in the luxurious Hotel Baur au Lac along Lake Zurich. Edith would live, study, teach, and psychoanalyze in these same rooms until the autumn of 1921.

Like Fanny Bowditch, Edith was most likely encouraged by Jung to sit in on his didactic seminars on psychoanalysis in the summer of 1913, as well as the seminar on the history of religion given by Professor Irene Hausheer. This was most likely the first time that Edith received any formal instruction in these subjects. Given her hunger for intellectual stimulation, she would have found these classes a welcome change from her life as a bored and agoraphobic socialite in Chicago.

In June and July, Fowler, his tutor, and his best friend were traveling in Italy. He returned to Zurich by the end of July and found that he did not care very much for the place. "Dear Grandfather," he wrote to John D. Rockefeller on August 10, 1913, "This is a very queer place. It has rained here this summer almost incessantly and some very peculiar weather phenomenons happen .... Zurich has many other peculiarities which are not worth mentioning." [17] It is clear from the many letters that survive that Fowler and Rockefeller had a very special bond, one not lost on Jung. He knew very well that this was the great Rockefeller's favorite grandchild. Jung always treated Fowler with special kindness that could only make his own son, Franz, quite jealous. His gradual adoption of Fowler was so successful that Fowler came to believe he was in the presence of a god.

In the years following the Second World War, Fowler became one of Jung's best friends. In an interview for the C. G. Jung Biographical Archives Project, Fowler confessed, "He was for me in my youth a 'father figure,' ... of an intensely strong nature. In a sense the word 'father figure' is too mild a term because one would call it more of a 'God figure.'" [18]

But in September 1913, not yet attached to Jung, Fowler set sail for America. He was not to see his mother or Jung again for two years.

In late October, Harold and Mathilde arrived in Zurich. Harold hoped that it would be a short stay and that Edith would return with him. Edith had then been in analysis with Jung for more than six months. Relatives on both sides of the family had been sending regular requests to Edith concerning her return. What could possibly be keeping Harold's family in Europe for so long?

The family was indeed settling in: Edith was working daily with Jung; Muriel was in "German school" and receiving private lessons; Mathilde, who suffered from frequent colds and struggled with maintaining her weight, would soon be in the Sanatorium Schweizerhof Davos-Platz for physical "upbuilding" and intellectual development. "It is very nice to be together," Edith wrote in a letter to Nettie, "and I am appreciating these days very much." [19]

As Christmas approached, Harold realized that Edith was not coming home any time soon. He had originally planned to bring Muriel back with him, but decided against it. She was an impulsive and headstrong child, quick to anger and seemingly in continual warfare with her parents, tutors, and governess. Harold decided it would be best to leave her in the structured environment of the German school and with her mother.

On December 9, 1913, Harold poured out his troubles to his mother:

Of course, I am greatly disappointed in one way, not to be back for Christmas. But, of course, it would not be the same if Edith were not there. Her pleasure still uncertain, but I have decided at her insistence to leave on the 20th by the Campania .... Edith wanted me to stay here longer, as her plans are uncertain, and she may not come over this winter .... So I was easily drawn to stay here. On the other hand she said the 20th and no longer. So the plan is really hers.

I will stop off a day to see Edith's family and report to them .... Edith is continuing to improve, and she is doing better and more each day. Today she went one and one-half hours out on the train and back, making a journey of three hours. Believe me, it does not come easily. [20]

Unknown to either Edith or Harold, Jung began the series of visionary descents into the Land of the Dead on December 12 -- just three days after Harold's letter to his mother -- that culminated in his self-deification as the Aryan Christ.

KUNSTHAUS ZURICH. ESTATE OF SUZANNE PERROTTET. COPYRIGHT © 1996 BY KUNSTHAUS ZURICH. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Neopagan Switzerland: "Totimo, Suzy Perrottet, Katja Wulff, Maja Lederer, Betty Baaron Samoa, Rudolf von Laban, Ascona, 1914," by Johann Adam Meisenbach. Not only did a number of these dancers frequent the Dadaist Cabaret Voltaire in Zurich in February and March of 1916 (at the same time that Edith Rockefeller McCormick helped Jung found the Psychological Club), but several later established relations with Jung or his disciples.

Third Psychoanalytic Congress in Weimar, September 21-22, 1911. Sitting: Lou- Andreas Salome, Beatrice Hinkle, Emma Jung, M. Von Stack, Toni Wolff, Martha Boddinghaus, Franz Riklin. Standing just to Riklin's right is Ernest Jones. Carl Jung is to the left, with his hands resting on the back of Emma's chair, and Sigmund Freud (bearded) stands to his right.

ERNST HAECKEL HAUS, JENA. GERMANY.

Ernst Haeckel, "Radiolaria," from his 1862 monograph of that name. Radiolaria are microorganisms that can be seen only with a microscope. In a dream the teenage Jung saw a radiolarian three feet in diameter. This led him to study medicine and the natural sciences rather than become a philologist or archeologist.

ERNST HAECKEL HAUS, JENA. GERMANY.

Ernst Haeckel, the Romantic scientist as artist, in Rapallo, Italy, on his seventieth birthday, 1904.

ERNST HAECKEL HAUS, JENA. GERMANY.

Ernst Haeckel and Isadora Duncan in front of the Festspielhaus in Bayreuth, Germany, 1904. This photo -- never before published -- was taken at their first meeting. Just a few hours later, they sat in the Wagner family's private box and viewed a performance of Parsifal. The fusion of bohemians and scientists at the turn of the century was inspired by Haeckel pantheism.

KUNSTHAUS, ZURICH. COURTESY OF DR. HARALD SZEEMANN.

 A rare photograph of Otto Gross (bearded, arms crossed). It is not known who the other men are, or where or when this photograph was taken. It was Gross who convinced Jung of the revitalizing powers of polygamy.

Fidus, "Sexualreligion," 1897. This illustration for Maximilian Ferdinand's volumes of Aryan mysticism shows an early representation of androgynous wholeness. The image of a Janus-faced male/female is what Jung would later call the "animus/anima," united in the symbol of the "self," the Aryan sun wheel, or mandala, as the supreme symbol of wholeness or God.

Fidus, cover illustration for a Theosophical journal, 1910. The Edenic imagery of the snake and the female would be echoed in a vision Jung had of his deification in December 1913.

BAUR AU LAC-ZURICH FAMILLE C. KRACHT TELEGR.: BAURLAC ZURICH INTERN, HOTEL TELEGR: CODE

Stationery from the Hotel Baur au Lac in Zurich, c. 1915. Although she came to Switzerland to have Jung cure her agoraphobia, Edith Rockefeller McCormick lived in a suite in this hotel from 1913 until 1921 and rarely ventured out. After she'd spent more than two million dollars (in today's currency) to found his Psychological Club, Jung allowed her to become an analyst. All her patients came to see her at the hotel, so she never had to leave her rooms.

MCCORMICK-INTERNATIONAL HARVESTER COLLECTION, STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF WISCONSIN (MADISON).

Edith Rockefeller McCormick, February 1917.

MCCORMICK-INTERNATIONAL HARVESTER COLLECTION, STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF WISCONSIN (MADISON).

Edith Rockefeller McCormick, flanked by her two daughters, Muriel (left). and Mathilde (right), in her suite at the Hotel Baur au Lac, February 1917.

MCCORMICK-INTERNATIONAL HARVESTER COLLECTION, STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF WISCONSIN (MADISON).

The last portrait ever taken of the McCormick family. Seated: Muriel and Edith. Standing: Mathilde, Fowler, and Harold Fowler McCormick. Only little Mathilde was not in analysis with Jung or Maria Moltzer.

Maria Moltzer at the psychoanalytic conference in Weimar, September 1911.

COURTESY OF THE COUNTWAY LIBRARY OF MEDICINE, HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL, BOSTON.

Fanny Bowditch Katz, photographed in Munich. c. 1925.

COURTESY OF THE COUNTWAY LIBRARY OF MEDICINE, HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL, BOSTON.

COURTESY OF THE COUNTWAY LIBRARY OF MEDICINE, HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL, BOSTON.

COURTESY OF THE COUNTWAY LIBRARY OF MEDICINE, HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL, BOSTON.

Three pages from the analysis diary of Fanny Bowditch Katz.

A page from the diary of Constance Long, showing a drawing she made on August 31, 1920, in Sennen Cove, Cornwall, England, the site of a seminar and personal analysis by Jung.

BEATRICE HINKLE, THE RE-CREATING OF THE INDIVIDUAL 1923.

A symbol direct from Jung's "archaic unconscious"? Or from the "personal unconscious" of the patient who drew it? Beatrice Hinkle mistakenly thought the former. It is obviously the famous sun worshiper image of the "Lichtgebet," by the German artist Fidus.

COURTESY OF THE COUNTWAY LIBRARY OF MEDICINE, HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL, BOSTON.

COURTESY OF THE COUNTWAY LIBRARY OF MEDICINE, HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL, BOSTON.

COURTESY OF THE COUNTWAY LIBRARY OF MEDICINE, HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL, BOSTON.

COURTESY OF THE COUNTWAY LIBRARY OF MEDICINE, HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL, BOSTON.

As Jung's patients in Zurich in the 1920s, Harvard psychologist Henry A. Murray and his mistress, Christiana Morgan, learned to induce visionary trance states and created their own neopagan cosmology. After finding and illustrating their own "Tower" in Massachusetts, Murray and Morgan practiced sexual magic and other rituil1s in honor of Jung. These four illuminated pages from a ritual "bible" created by Morgan are probably from the 1940s.

COURTESY OF THE COUNTWAY LIBRARY OF MEDICINE, HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL, BOSTON.

Jung at Harvard University, 1936. The man with the goatee is his disciple Ernest Harms.

On his return to the States, Harold dashed off a letter to John D. Rockefeller describing not only Jung's form of educational treatment for his community of patients, but also his own favorable impressions of the Swiss doctor. Indeed, Harold seems to have had quite a powerful therapeutic experience with Jung, and he viewed not only his wife but himself and his marriage in an entirely new light. For the first time in any of his correspondence Harold employed spiritual and mystical metaphors to describe Jung's methods. After assuring Rockefeller that Edith had "well-founded" reasons for remaining in Zurich and that she expressed a "relative unhappiness at feeling that her work demanded that she stay abroad," Harold had these remarkable things to say:

Suffice it for the moment, please, to say that she has made, is making and will make great progress, and that she does not rest content in any other thought than that of a completed treatment. That word, by the way, seems almost profane, in her case because it is more of a study much more than anything connected with medicine, or hygiene, and instead of being simply fed improvement, she very largely makes her own mental recipes .... In a word Edith is becoming very real and true to herself, and is seeking and I'm sure will succeed, to find her path. Those words would form the text. The analysis would be along many directions.

At any rate, she is in absolutely safe and trustworthy hands, for no finer man ever breathed than Dr. Jung. He has an intense admiration for Edith and yet recognizes that she is the toughest problem he ever had to deal with. At first he was doubtful of success and questioned what he would find. Now he sees a wonderful personality to engage his thoughts and his very best and most contentious efforts. He sees it is much worthwhile! ...

My time was most wonderfully well spent. It was not fun, it was very tiresome -- in the sense of fatiguing -- but mine was only a little of what Edith has to endure -- but she knows what the reward is and will be and she sees the light -- after passing through ever so much of deep and almost impenetrable darkness.

I know you will not prejudge what I say -- and perhaps I have ventured too far -- and yet there is no mystery -- only the situation is so unusual -- I almost have to pinch myself to know that it really does exist.

Edith has much of beautiful things to do in this world, she sees it, she knows it, and she is bound to realize their accomplishment. It was a Godsend that she met Dr. Jung, and that her family stood back of her in her resolve and that she felt this assurance. [21]

Edith, like Fanny Bowditch, Maria Moltzer, and many, many others before her, was now on the path. It was only a matter of time before Harold and Fowler would join her.

1914

For her father's birthday on May 2, twelve-year-old Muriel sent Harold a gardening tool as a present with a note: "For my dear Daddy, wishing him a very happy birthday, From his affectionate and loving daughter, Muriel." Harold wrote back thanking her for "the lovely little birthday present." "The trowel was simply fine," he wrote on May 9, "and I am keeping it on my desk. It was sweet of you to think of me, and I appreciate it as a peace offering from my lovely little daughter." [22]

Harold was here referring to the problems in their relationship caused by Muriel's mercurial -- indeed, volatile -- personality. Muriel told her father in a letter on July 13 that she and her governess, Mlle. Beley, had great "quarrels." As a remedy, Edith had insisted that her daughter undergo psychoanalysis as well. "My work with Miss Moltzer is getting along finely," Muriel told her father in the same letter. [23]

As we know from the case of Fanny Bowditch, Jung first began to incorporate his idea of a transcendent realm of primordial images (archetypes) into his practice in early 1914. His female patients fell in love with him not for who he was as a man but for his underlying godlikeness. Although spiritual metaphors and an interest in the occult had always attracted certain types of patients, in the early months of 1914 he became more explicit about his view of analysis as a spiritual path. The unconscious now became not only a place, but a "greater personality" or guardian spirit of sorts, an oracle that could be consulted to foretell the future if one learned the secret techniques of Jung's methods. Everyone now had a special spiritual fate or destiny to fulfill. No one believed this more than Edith.

She now took it upon herself to proselytize any and all who would listen. For far too many years she had lived in uncertainty and with the self-image of a weak and ill victim of circumstances. Now she began to take on the voice and advisory role of a prophetess. She began with her father, who was suffering through the prolonged, eventually fatal illness of his wife Laura.

"We all have our problems to face -- this is living," Edith told John D. on June 25, 1914, in one of her characteristically short letters. "And I feel that you will rise above the things that are difficult for us now, and realize that we must all fulfill our greater Destiny. The great Divine guardian Spirit cannot do things wrong." [24] From this point until the day she died, this was the new, mediumistic voice of Edith Rockefeller McCormick.

Missing his family, Harold finally made plans to return to Europe with Fowler. However, he chose August 1, 1914, as his tentative date of arrival. With the outbreak of war, Harold had to cancel his plans. Fowler returned to Groton for the fall term. And Edith, although making great progress in her studies and in her treatment with Jung, now feared leaving the neutral sanctuary of Switzerland.

Anticipating the worst, Harold sent over a courier to deliver gold to Edith and to report on the conditions in Zurich. He included a letter, begging her to contact him. The sudden outbreak of war in Europe redirected Harold's attention to company business as well. The general manager of International Harvester, Alexander Legge, issued a confidential memo to all its division managers and department heads on August 29, 1914, urging caution: "Obviously, the only position for us to take is one of absolute neutrality, with the hope that the struggle may be over soon. We must realize that the Company is International in fact as well as in name, that we have property interests in practically all of the countries involved in the difficulty, and among our employees and stockholders there are representatives of all the nations involved in the struggle." [25] The war threatened not only Harold's family, but his livelihood.

Despite his business and the dangers, he got to Genoa on September 18. When he arrived in Zurich, he found that Edith was no longer in analysis with Jung but instead had embarked on her own intensive educational program with a series of private tutors. "Edith is doing wonderfully well and you will be delighted when you see her and will feel the time well spent," Harold wrote to Rockefeller on October 3. "She occupies herself all day long .... She studies astronomy, biology and history, and music. She does not go to see Dr. Jung anymore. Physically, I think she is fine." [26] Muriel is "doing well although she finds it hard to control herself." To his mother, Harold reported, "The war is very sad. Yesterday I went with two Swiss acquaintances to the frontier and felt the breath of battle. All the Swiss soldiers are guarding their frontier." [27] Jung would soon be among them.

Switzerland seemed to all to be the calm eye of the storm, and the only visible sign that anything was amiss was the large number of refugees huddled near the main train station on the Bahnofsplatz. On October 20, Harold sent the following description of their life in Zurich in one of his weekly letters to his mother:

[Edith's] face is almost entirely clear and her step is springy and she walks with her arms free and swinging. She notices all the things of nature and dresses simply and in very artistic taste suitable to her makeup. In the morning we usually take a walk before lunch and in the afternoon also. Then in the evening we sit around the Hotel or go to some moving picture show .... Mathilde goes through a regular course of treatment each day and could be discharged by November. ... One day goes much like another here and the war news absorbs the attention directed towards the outer world. [28]

What Harold didn't tell his mother or his father-in-law was that now he, too, was in analysis with Jung. As the weeks passed, he decided to stay in Zurich and complete his own course of treatment and began to make preparations accordingly. On October 28, Harold broke what he knew would be unwelcome news to his mother: "I don't know when we will be corning back. I am proposing to remain here with Edith until she is ready -- and I do not propose to have the false alarms of last year." [29]

As his analysis progressed, Harold seemed to come under Jung's spell. Harold wrote his mother on November 28, "Dr. Jung grows on me all the time. You must know him sometime and I hope he will come to America sometime to make us a visit. He would interest you with the many and profound things he knows." [30]

On Christmas Eve, Harold, Edith, Muriel, and Mathilde exchanged gifts and sent their love through telegrams to Fowler, who was spending time with his grandfather at Pocantico Hills. They were pleased that Edith seemed to finally be happy -- or as happy as she ever became. Living in a foreign country still made everything seem somewhat unreal, somewhat tentative, since they all knew that at any moment Edith could change her mind and want to return to Chicago. Even the war seemed unreal to them.

Within a few months, the war would have the psychological effect of hermetically sealing many foreigners in Switzerland, and C. G. Jung would seem to many to be the only savior of a world gone mad.

1915

Edith was no longer in analysis with Jung, but she still very much believed in him. At first she did not like some of his orders -- such as washing the floors of her giant suite of rooms herself on her hands and knees, an activity that was supposed to help her learn humility. But she stuck with him and found new dimensions to their relationship that soon made her feel more like a colleague than a patient.

Although by now she read German quite well and spoke it passably, Edith saw how poor Harold struggled to understand Jung's writings. She wanted to share her transformative experience with her husband and with all those she left back home in America. To bring this about, Edith donated generous sums of money for the translation of his works into English. In 1916, Beatrice Hinkle's retitled translation of Wandlungen, Psychology of the Unconscious, appeared in New York and Jung's Collected Papers on Analytical Psychology was published in London. In 1918 the massive volume of Jung's word-association studies appeared in an English translation by M. D. Eder.

Rockefeller money introduced Jung to the English-speaking world and helped bring him the worldwide fame he has today. In the 1940s, Mary Mellon, with her husband, financier Paul Mellon, provided the funds for the translation of all the German works and retranslation of most of Jung's previous publications into English. [31] The Rockefellers, the McCormicks, and the Mellons were three of America's wealthiest families, and we can only wonder whether Jung would still be so popular today if he had not attracted and converted their women to his mysteria. Without their financial backing his works might still be in German and therefore inaccessible to much of the world.

***

The long-awaited wedding of Cyrus McCormick, Harold's older brother, had been scheduled for February 1915, and Nettie wanted the entire family, including Edith, Harold, and their children, present. In mid-January, however, Edith informed Harold that she would be unable to go. After some ambivalence, Harold decided to go alone. His visit would have been very short if Edith's mother, Laura Rockefeller, had not died while Harold was there. After seeing his son and visiting his grieving father-in-law in Pocantico Hills, Harold left New York on March 16 for Marseille.

The weather was cold and wet for almost the entire first two weeks of his return to Zurich. On April 14, 1915, he wrote his mother that Muriel was about to graduate from her German school and would then enter a boarding school outside Zurich. "This will get her out of the hotel, which is a bad place for her, and we can visit her on Sundays." Harold then tacked on an addition:

Dr. and Mrs. Jung come this evening to dinner. ... Edith has only seen Dr. Jung once while I was away and that was the morning before I arrived, when they went over some corrections Edith was making in the English proofs of some of Dr. Jung's writings. Edith is improving every day and now is almost independent of Dr. Jung's treatment. She is now once more almost entirely in contact with the world, from which she has so much withdrawn. She is working right along every day and learning "her path."

But in a scrawled note below his name, he admitted for the first time that something had been very wrong in Edith's understanding of herself as a mother. "She has improved greatly as to attitude towards the children, but still has some things to realize and carry out in this direction yet." [32] After years of abdicating the care of her own children to governesses and boarding schools, she no longer knew how to relate to them.

On that same day, Edith wrote a letter of encouragement to her father, fearing that the first letter she sent him after her mother's death did not reach him "on account of the war considerations." "I know that you are adapting yourself to this new life and fulfilling your own individual Destiny," Edith said. "We cannot mourn for the beautiful spirit which has gone beyond us, for we know that it is living on and developing. I am only sorry that my work is not yet finished here so that I could be nearer to you now." [33]

On May 7, 1915, 1,198 men, women, and children -- including 128 Americans -- lost their lives when the Germans torpedoed the British liner Lusitania. Harold knew someone on that doomed ship, a man by the name of Herbert Stone. "Everyone here speaks of the Lusitania with hushed voice," he wrote to his mother on May 31. "I cabled and wrote to Mary Stone. I am afraid Herbert was among those who could not swim and he surrendered any chance at the boats." [34]

Harold now realized the danger of crossing the ocean while the war still raged. The fear of leaving his family in the middle of a war zone helped him to overcome his remaining resistance to Jung. Rather than always having one foot in and one foot out of the magically unreal community of spiritual seekers around Jung, he now felt part of their mission. As others in analysis in Zurich found, the war seemed to heighten the social cohesiveness and group identity of the Jungians. Harold finally saw the need for the spiritual rebirth of the world and was certain that Jung was the man to bring it about. His conversion was complete.

In his letter to his mother, Harold discussed an article she had sent him about a young woman they both knew who had committed suicide. His high regard for the healing powers of Dr. Jung is evident, and he tells his mother he is postponing -- once again -- a return.

As to Miss Farwell, it is indescribably sad. At once on reading the article my thoughts formed just two words "Dr. Jung." There is not the slightest doubt he could have saved her -- saved a life and handed it back to the world in more beauty and usefulness than before. Spirits tired and worn and distracted are brightened and refreshed under his care and safe keeping .... I have decided as I cabled you to postpone my sailing which I had thought of as May 29th. I did this myself of my own account without regard to Edith. She was prepared that I should go but I wanted to stay here longer because there were some points with Dr. Jung I wanted to clear up. [35]

Despite Harold's reluctance to leave Switzerland, under Jung' s care he began to believe in the inevitability of fate and, paradoxically, worried less about the safety of his family. "This place is so tranquil, you would never know any war was going on," he said to his mother on June 3,1915. Oddly heedless of the Lusitania disaster, he assured her, "One can always leave without much difficulty." [36] Ocean liners still operated, although with great uncertainty, and Fowler set sail from New York on the St. Paul on June 19 with the hope "eventually ... to turn up in Zurich, there to join my long- lost family." [37] He arrived safely in Zurich on July 1.

Harold wrote to his mother on July 9, assuring her that Fowler made the trip without incident. He informed her that, "This morning Fowler went with me to Kiisnacht, both on bicycles, and then he left me at Dr. Jung's gate." [38] Harold's sessions with Dr. Jung assumed a greater importance in his life and he wanted everyone in his family to benefit from analysis. On July 15, he wrote, "Muriel goes to Miss Moltzer twice a week. It's doing great good." [39] Now it was Fowler's turn.

Fowler McCormick remembered it near the end of his life:

In 1915 ... my mother said to me, "Fowler, this question of analytical psychology is a very important one. There are many most interesting developments in it. I think it is something that you should know something about." Following that thought she arranged through Dr. Jung for me to spend two or three hours a week with Dr. Franz Riklin .... I was intensely interested in the subjects which Riklin spoke about and I read extensively in the works of Freud, Nietzsche, Schopenhauer. ... I was fascinated by the conception of the ability to find meaning in dreams and the marvelous work of Freud in exposing his theories and giving the cases as he did .... In Nietzsche I read in a beginning way, not as much as I did on my next trip to Zurich. [40]

With the entire family now in Zurich, John D. Rockefeller finally became incensed that Harold and Edith were "banqueting" their days away and placing the entire family -- including Fowler, his favorite -- in jeopardy in the middle of a war. On June 18, Harold wrote a very strong (for him) letter to his father-in-law and attempted to explain the allure of analytical psychology and Jung.

This is not a tabernacle of joy, but a shrine to which seekers only address themselves, and it is in this spirit that I have again postponed my sailing and that Edith still finds herself held. With both of us, every day counts. This is not a place (the school of Zurich) which encourages remaining here beyond the right or the normal time, but the whole question is one of degree at best, for no one who is really interested in analytical psychology and finds it of help ever drops it, because if it is one thing, -- it is to be lived, and the more one studies the more one is prepared to live on its basis. So one must strike out again in life else it (analytical psychology) defeats its own purpose. The fundamental idea of it is to teach one, one's self -- and this is not always easy, and still worse difficult, owing to conscious resistances, to follow one's path when it has been laid out by one's own self .... I remained here purely on my own account, to finish up some work. [41]

In the last week of August 1915, Harold had an experience that convinced him more than ever of Jung's magical power.

Harold went on a "walking trip" with Jung through Switzerland and in the increased level of intimacy realized how "false" or "unreal" he was in comparison with Jung, whom he glowingly describes as a "real" or "natural" man. On August 31, he wrote a report of his experiences with Jung, Emma, and Toni Wolff that allows us to see not only how deeply involved Harold had become with Jung, but also the sorts of ideas about personality types and relationships Jung was then teaching his patients. It is a document of unparalleled insight.

Dr. Jung told me he was going on a ten days vacation and knowing this would throw me out of the sittings, meanwhile and having for a long while wanted to get off this way with him, I wondered if I might go. He said certainly in the latter part of his trip, but at first he wanted a few days for solitude and meditation. So later Mrs. Jung and a Miss Wolff (an analitiker) who has been analyzed by him joined him and later I did.... The companions charming, so real and true to themselves. [ ] and flexible, Dr. Jung is as nearly perfect to my mind as a man can be.

Naturally I was at first a little fearful how I would get on with such an analysed party. But it went beautifully, because the spirit, and my understanding were there. There were only two or three times when things went for a little while wrong -- "resistances" or "repressions" on my part but these were easily cleared up by talking out. It was a rare chance. Naturally Dr. Jung and I were each studying the other. I was making notes of his attitude and method to apply it to my own case. He was sizing me up to see how I was compared to those professional times when he usually saw me. I told him yesterday I was delighted to see the natural way he acted and he said "of course." Then I told him I was sure that Edith in her [ ] way was a little too inflexible still. And he said "yes" as for me he said I was much more balanced than formerly, so much so that he remarked to his wife that it was now hard to discern from my actions whether I was "extravert" or "introvert." But still my great need yet is to cultivate on my own part an intimate knowledge of myself -- to like to be with myself. Then other matters, when I learn to develop my "thinking" side, will take their natural and proper course, for my "feeling" side is plenty if not a little too much developed already. So on the whole the trip was profitable -- every minute of it. Once when I made some remark which pleased him, Dr. Jung said, "Mr. McCormick you're all right" -- which was a good deal for him to say and only had a general reference-here being plenty for me yet to do, -- but I know very well I am stronger in many ways, and yet I don't think the difference will be jarring, but rather the contrary. But this has yet to be seen. 1know I am deeply grateful for what I have achieved and aside from its wonderful help in connection with and relation to Edith, it is for me a great thing in itself. I have, I know, opened up for myself a field of opportunity, and now it is for me to take ahold of it. ...

I only wish Edith had been with us. But we had to do as he thinks best, and if Edith cannot or does not want to take such trips it is not for me always to stay back. There must be for the greatest peace and contentment a large amount of independence. This makes each more to the other not as long as there is an underlying value for each other, and this is something not to assume just because we are married, but to work for and strive for, and the more we are in a common work, the more we are together in thought and purpose. But there still is left room for individuality and separate interests and in following these we each bring to the other new thoughts and ideas and a freshness of things to talk about, and it gives us a zest which the reverse suppresses, leaving the desire still there but unsatisfied. This makes resistances and we project these on this basis into other things which in turn creates an entirely false situation and friction suppressed or unspoken issues -- it's bound to. [42]

As Harold's involvement with the Jungian subculture of Zurich deepened that autumn, his letters to his mother and to John D. became more explicit about his and his daughter Muriel's experiences with analysis. His mother had been quite concerned about Muriel's entry into puberty and recommended a prominent book for her son to read on adolescence. Harold responded, "Oh yes, I know Stanley Hall's book. I have read it some years ago." He then added: "[Muriel] just had her first menstruation about a month ago. You may believe we are watchful and we love her dearly, and Dr. Jung and Miss Moltzer are master minds on the subject and even now Muriel goes to Miss Moltzer and talks out all her 'repressions' or a good many of them at any rate." [43] Later, Harold said often that Muriel's problematic personality reminded him of his insane sister Virginia. On the same day, Harold also wrote to Rockefeller in response to some queries that he had put forth:

Of Dr. Jung, it seems a trite thing to say, but I do most sincerely say that I am surprised how little I have known myself heretofore or how little I have cared for the society and acquaintance and intimacy of myself. I am told there is a wealth of opportunity in this direction, without in any way increasing self-adulation. Some people know themselves instinctively, others never do. It never occurred to me to compare the society of myself with that of others. I sought the latter consciously while unconsciously wanting to be more with myself, and here was a battle. Now I am learning a little the new way, and I am trying to learn to think, for I have always had a superabundance of "feelings" -- With Edith it is just exactly the other way ....

For the past week I have had the rare chance of being with Dr. Jung and his wife and a Miss Wolff. He is surely a great man, and a most genuine one, and spiritual. [44]

Harold was clearly finding his work with Jung beneficial. He wrote his mother, "If I were not impressed with the benefit of it for all time I should not have invested one year in analysis." [45] Harold was now exercising his new intellectual muscles; in this letter he also included a definition from Immanuel Kant of what is "right" for an individual. In a later letter he told Nettie he was reading "the translation of the writings of an old Chinese philosopher (B.C. 625), Lao-dze," and provided extensive quotes. [46]

The walking trip with Jung seems to have made Harold more comfortable with the idea of leaving Edith behind. He planned to sail on October 15 "with or without her," as he told his mother. [47] (Fowler left Zurich on the seventh of September.) But although Harold seemed to be improving, Edith was having a slower time of it. While some persons found analysis useful, Harold told his mother that "in Edith's case it is life itself." Although Edith's dreams seemed to be telling her that she should return to Chicago, her agoraphobia was still quite disabling. For almost a year she had not left the grounds of the Hotel.

I wonder if I am betraying confidence in telling you just between us that Edith told me yesterday she had a dream in which she saw you coming into the parlor smiling, and she was much pleased. It was the first of its kind. She now is commencing to transfer her desire to Chicago which is a fine sign. It is an awakening as from a long dream. She now is commencing to travel. I started with her on her first try, the first in 11 months. We bought two tickers to Winterthur 35 minutes away first stop. Just before the train started she got out -- could not do it. She was so disappointed. I could have cried. We then took a local and went 20 minutes up the Lake [ ]. Then she went and slept at a small hotel in Kusnacht unknown to Dr. Jung (with Emmy). She has twice done this since at other small towns, and so she will feel her way. She is indomitable in tenacity. That has carried her through. Tonight she is off again. I plan to sail Oct. 15th. She is trying to get ready to go too. [48]

Harold reserved his most detailed descriptions of analysis and its effects for his father-in-law. Harold badly wanted him to understand and approve of his new analytic insights, and he went to great lengths to describe in layman's terms what he had learned from Jung. The most revealing letter -- of October 31 -- is also the longest: almost two thousand words. In it, Harold attempted to give concrete examples along with his definitions of Jung' s concepts of "projection," "transference," "introversion," "extraversion," "thinking type," "feeling type," and the necessity for the balance between the conscious and the unconscious minds.

Harold's letter was in response to one from Rockefeller in which he expressed his concern that analysis was a form of "propaganda" and that Harold and Edith were caught up in a religious cult of sorts. Rockefeller was a Baptist and was unsettled by the hints of a non-Christian religious frenzy that Harold as well as Edith now seemed to exhibit. He had looked to Harold as his eccentric daughter's caretaker, but he now joined Nettie McCormick in his concern that Harold's talk of adopting a new "religious attitude to life" did not bode well for the future.

Taken as a whole, Harold's letter to Rockefeller is a remarkable summary of Jung's philosophy in 1915 -- a virtually unknown period in Jung's development that preceded his later and more familiar theories of psychological types, the collective unconscious, and archetypes. It also shows the extent to which Jung was promoting a totalizing religious philosophy and himself as its prophet. Harold was, in a sense, "witnessing" to his father-in- law in this letter. Here are some significant excerpts:

I thank you for your reference to analysis and the work I am doing here. It is so strictly personal, it is hard to talk much about it, much less to write, and in a few experiences I have had I can see that this effort in either direction can be overdone and the object misunderstood. For a "visionary spirit" is the last in the world to have as to gaining converts or exercising any propaganda, but when one is interested to hear its principles of method can be outlined. But even to impart these is hard because so much of it has to be felt not in the way of "faith," but in the way of "need." And if one is studying it and feels its help the human tendency is to want everyone to have it and to know of it. ...

Well, anyway, "analytical psychology" is still in its infancy as a science, as a means for an end, as a method to obtain an attitude, and it is little known; and among those who know -- generally among those who know only somewhat of it where it is as such sometimes misunderstood -- it is not always believed in. Like anything new it has to "win its spurs," and that takes time, but the truth always prevails in the long run -- "truth, a property of certain of our ideas in agreement with reality" -- and I believe there is truth in "analytical psychology" and that in the course of time this will be recognized.

I have a simple little thought that "analysis" is good for everyone but necessary (in the sense of helpful) in proportion as one is not at one with himself. This last is mostly emphasized among those who are very neurotic. For a businessman it is good; for a poor tired soul, worn out by mental struggle with the world or himself, it is more needed.

To me it has two general aspects, one a scientific aspect: that is the knowledge and observance of certain laws of life, of human nature, etc.; and the other is metaphysical or spiritual. ... In the case of the tired soul the "religious attitude" -- entirely different in precept from "religion" but of the same character, would appeal the more strongly .... The whole work itself is the development of an attitude towards life and things, and this attitude when found directs one's daily life in almost everything .... I don't mean everyone is worthless without analysis, I only mean that there is much in analysis which would help everyone is my belief and from what I have seen and realized or experienced ....

I believe that without analysis few bring such situations before their minds for contemplation and action .... But there is to my mind a difference between doing this in a hap-hazard way or doing this systematically and intelligently and here is where analysis comes in as showing a "method" or a "process" towards the attainment of an "attitude" which directs, by uncovering and bringing to light the true inward situation from the unconscious into the "sunlight of consciousness" where the problems may be dealt with as real, known, propositions and factors rather than by indefinite hazy "ungetatable" longings or discontentments .... The knowledge of these problems, plus the knowledge of one's self, plus the action to harmonize and balance constitutes the state of mind called an "attitude," and the recognition of this attitude constitutes "being at one with one's self." ... Another way of putting this same thing is to say that when the conscious and unconscious are in balance "one is at one with one's self." ...

Dr. Jung believes there is an unconscious part of our mind as distinguished from the conscious, and that the unconscious mind is very powerful but usually is not fully recognized and is submerged by the conscious but not dominated by it, and it (the unconscious) goes on working .... The conscious represents the self in the more unreal way. The unconscious in the more real way. Dr. Jung believes that through the interpretation of dreams which in themselves are symbolic, we arrive at a knowledge of the speech of the unconscious; also through the "association word method" so much used now in criminology; also through "reveries" when the conscious mind is in repose ... and also through the "blocking" or "stumbling" process when a person says one thing while consciously meaning to say another. Now most Psychologists do not agree with Dr. Jung, or the truth or value of the interpretation of dreams, or in the unconscious being a separate proposition from the conscious. They believe it is all conscious simply of one degree or another of varying intensity, and that dreams are vagaries, and of no value to use.

Following a discussion of the importance of "self-esteem," Harold tried to explain Jung's notion of the two psychological types with reference to Edith and himself. Harold's remarks attest to the utility of these particular conceptual innovations, which are perhaps Jung's greatest practical contributions to psychology:

There are two types which stand out, for example, the one the "Introvert" (Edith's type), who "thinks" and the other is the "Extravert" (my type) who "feels. " The "Introvert" is of the old, so-called "Stoic type"; he lives much ·within himself; he is apt to deny the existence of all not possessed in the mind; he draws and absorbs from the world; there is a sharp line between himself and the world. The "Extravert" feels, does, acts, lives in and is a part of the world; he gives out constantly; he runs dry; there is no sharp line between himself and the world, his own personality is relatively lost; he is of the old "sympathetic" type. Now neither extreme is good; a balance is better, but how? Well, the Introvert should develop his feeling and the Extravert his thinking. The conscious manifestation of the Introvert being the "ability" to think, he should develop his unconscious which contains his latent feelings, and vice versa the Extravert, should develop his unconscious which is along the line of bringing out his thoughts .... So in analysis the idea on this point is that each shall understand the other on one hand, and each shall develop his particular weak side to a more even balance. So this work has naturally been of great help to Edith and me in each understanding the other, and in each helping to get to the other's standpoint.

Harold attempted to teach Rockefeller the unique language of analysis:

"[R]epressions" [meant that] we would not speak out and tell each other what we thought of one another but would keep silent and just remember, instead of bringing them out to the surface and having it out in talk and forgetting it. Too many "repressions" bring "resistances" and that means resentment or dislike, and that is bad. I had plenty of "resistance" piled up against Edith if, for example, she spoke to the cook about dinner out of my hearing I would become displeased and would start in to pick a quarrel with the cook, and the first I knew I would be angry at her. This is "projection." I would project on the cook (entirely harmless) my feelings really directed at Edith. Then "transference" is another general law where you get to be over dependent upon the other person (I have done a lot of this in my life).... I think all the above will give you a general idea of what we are driving at. Naturally Edith started in analysis as a salvation and it has wonderfully succeeded with her. I started because I was here, and for myself and for the benefit in understanding the language she was acquiring, and in this I have done well indeed. As I progressed I became deeply appreciative and engrossed. Of course you get hardly any idea from this letter of the depths and heights embraced within analysis.

Harold recommended that Rockefeller read an article on psychoanalysis by Max Eastman in the June/July 1915 issue of Everybody's Magazine, although he admitted it "only skims the surface."

There are few scientific writings as yet, and what papers there are mostly in German, but some are now being translated into English. Analysis holds that individual psychology exists, that each person is a problem to himself; that if a person does not find that he is at one with himself, that there is a way to learn; and finally that learning this if he follows the path indicated he will secure the result desired to a greater or lesser extent according to circumstances, of patience, of submission, degree of need felt, etc. It is wonderful how the days and time pass. You cannot imagine how this happens. [49]

United in their newly adopted psychological and metaphysical belief system, Harold and Edith attempted to convert John D. and other members of their family to Jung's ideas. In 1915, Jung assigned many of his disciples and patients readings in Nietzsche, particularly the posthumous compilation of notes and diary entries and other previously unpublished material that his sister put together in the book entitled The Will to Power. Harold and Edith were so taken with it that they sent a copy to John D. as a Christmas gift. Rockefeller and Nietzsche mixed like oil and water. "Dear Edith and Harold," Rockefeller wrote on January 26, "I am just in receipt of your Christmas greetings, and the book, entitled 'The Will to Power' volume one, for which I send many thanks. I am sure the book will prove very interesting reading, though it may be far beyond me. I keep to a simple philosophy and almost primitive ideas of living. These seem to be best for my physical and mental composition, and am keeping very busy, although I may not be keeping up with the bandwagon." [50]

Harold was quick to pick up on his father-in-law's discomfort at the implication that he needed any improvement, especially the sort they were engaging in. Harold tried to smooth over any misunderstandings by buttering him up. On February 16, 1916, Harold wrote:

We are glad you received the book "The Will to Power" vol. I -- It was not sent with any idea of being a guide, for you possess the title as few experience. It came to you more as iron to a magnet. It was thought a glance might be a pleasing collaboration. It cites the theory, you exemplify the practice. Others who are not so favored as you, or who have not developed the faculty, can I am sure get much good from it -- using discretion and discernment of course. Like many who have new paths, "Nietzsche" was radical. Edith and I both feel and think you are unusually "at one with yourself." ... Yours has been a life of pure intuitive psychology. For others this must be acquired and many may never get it. [51]

Once again, Christmas found the family united in Zurich, but without Fowler, who spent the day with his grandfather in Pocantico Hills. In an undated December 1915 letter to his grandmother, the lives of Harold and Edith are seen through the sad child they left behind in America.

I, too, am deeply disappointed that the entire family is not to-day on this side of the ocean, but I am confident that there is some good reason for this not being the case. And I can well understand Mother's feeling about coming back .... [She] is very happy in the surroundings and atmosphere of Zurich. She comes and goes and does what she wants, there is ample opportunity and time for study and she has few or no duties imposed upon her.

Father is divided by his desire to be over here with the business and his friends and family, and his desire to be with Mother. It certainly would simplify matters if Mother could come over. She imagines things worse over here and more difficult than they really are.

Don't worry about me! [52]

For Edith and Harold, the only solution was to introduce Fowler to the wisdom of Jung. If only he could see the light -- as they had with Jung's help -- he would understand the present situation and not feel abandoned. Harold began sending books and long letters explaining analytical psychology, which Fowler showed to his grandmother when he stayed with her in Chicago. Realizing that she might lose her grandson to the weird spell Jung seemed to hold over the rest of her family, Nettie accused Harold of trying to convert his son to this unhealthy foreign philosophy. From the perspective of those left behind in America, adopting Jung' s theories seemed the cause of the breakup of the family. On February 7, 1916, Harold sent her an equally sharp response. "I know how well-meaning your words are, but I am not trying to influence Fowler and I don't like others to." [53]

This would prove to be untrue.

1916

Harold and Edith were now zealots when it came to Jung and analytical psychology. And being Rockefellers and McCormicks, they knew they had the power to make Jung's influence felt in the world.

Both of them had attended the occasional lectures at the Psychological Club meetings that Jung had been holding in a private room of a local restaurant since 1913. The ambience, however, was not conducive to the free expression of ideas among intimates or the forging of stronger bonds between Club members. Given a lifetime spent in American country clubs, it was probably Harold who decided to buy a building to serve as a clubhouse for the analysts and patients. For Jung and analytical psychology to gain any respectability, it was clear to his American patrons that the Psychological Club needed a building for its lectures, seminars, and other social events and to lodge guests. Plans were made to buy or rent a building in Zurich and renovate it to resemble an American country club. It was up to Harold to find the right building and make all the arrangements. Bor rowing heavily from a local bank by using her Rockefeller name as collateral, Edith paid for it.

The building that Harold found was in one of the most expensive districts in the city. With Harold's help, Edith borrowed enough money to establish a large reserve of funds to ensure the continued existence of the Club. She did this without consulting her father first, but she knew that he would always take care of her. Plans to secure the building were already in place by January 31, 1916, when Edith wrote to him to ask for more stocks in Standard Oil, pointing out that her "allowance" from him had remained the same since 1910. "As a woman of forty-three," Edith said, "I should like to have more money to help with. There are causes in which I am interested which are uplifting and of such importance to my development which I cannot help as I should like to because I have not the money. I hope that you will see that as a woman of earnestness of purpose and singleness of spirit I am worthy." [54]

Without waiting for a response, Edith and Harold rented and renovated the new building.

Due perhaps to the intensity of the war, Edith did not receive a response from her father until July. Of course, Rockefeller gave his daughter the money, but this time he wanted to know exactly how she was spending it. He wanted a detailed accounting from her -- not her husband -- of what she had been doing for so long in Zurich. He knew she was going to use the extra money for Jung's purposes, and he began to suspect that Jung was a charlatan who was only after the Rockefeller fortune. In her uncharacteristically long response to her father on July 20, 1916, Edith tried to explain herself. She revealed some startling new developments in Zurich.

For the first time we learn that Jung has now allowed Edith to be a practicing analyst. As she was still quite agoraphobic, her patients came to her suite at the hotel. Perhaps Jung felt that her generous patronage bought Edith the right to be an analyst if that's what she wanted, despite the severity of her many problems.

Edith wrote:

I want to thank you for the letter you wrote to me ... in answer to my letter asking if you would not give me some more money. I too am sorry that my work has taken me for such a long time away from you ....

I'm getting healed myself and getting my nerves up. I am learning how I can help to heal other people who are struggling on with shattered nerves. It is a very difficult work, but it is a beautiful work. I have rented here a house and have founded a psychological club which gives the opportunity for those who are in analysis to come together. This is an important step forward in the collective development.

Except for small sums, my three large interests are the Memorial Institute for Infectious Diseases, the Chicago Opera Company, and Analysis. To the Institute I give $25,000.00 a year. To the Opera I give to the guarantee fund each year $12,000.00. To the Club I had to make the gift all at the same time, this was $120,000.00 Of this amount I had to borrow $80,000.00 at the Bank. But now I can begin paying this off next year. This work is unique in the history of mankind and its far reaching values are inestimable. For a cause such as this I would willingly make a bigger loan. The bankers are very nice with me and I expect no difficulties in paying off my debt in time. You would be interested to hear more of this work, and I shall be glad to tell you much about it when I come back. [55]

These sums would be generous in current dollars, let alone in 1916. Jung's movement was clearly the overwhelming recipient of Edith's largesse. In 1997 dollars, the money Edith donated to the Jungian cause would be close to $2 million. And this is in addition to paying for the translations of Jung's works into English.

Edith's language in her letters suggests that from the very start she and everyone else involved with Jung saw their work as religious in nature and that their small group in Zurich would be the first of many other such groups to eventually spread across the planet. The Zurich School would be the vanguard of a new movement that would bring a spiritual rebirth to the world. If Jung's movement was indeed "unique in the history of mankind," then the founding of the headquarters of the Psychological Club would be remembered as the moment that Jung and his disciples entered the history books. Edith was proud to be able to bring this about. Describing it later that year in her annual letter to her mother-in-law, Edith said: "I am enclosing a photograph of the Psychological Club which I founded and endowed on the 26th of January of this year. This house I have rented for two and a half years. It makes a center for analyzed people where we can be in pension, or come in for meals, or come for the evenings for lectures, discussions and study, all of which teaches collectivity. Any new movement has a slow growth, but this assures a lasting quality." [56]

Sigmund Freud was quite jealous. "[The Rev. Oskar] Pfister writes that Rockefeller's daughter presented Jung with a gift of 360,000 francs for the construction of a casino, analytic institute, etc.," he complained to Sandor Ferenczi on April 29, 1916. "So Swiss ethics have finally made their sought-after contact with American money. I think ·not without bitterness about the pitiful situations of the members of our Associations, our difficulties with the Verlag [publishing house], etc. Now Jung is supposedly talking about me again with 'veneration.' I replied to Pfister that this turnaround finds no resonance with me." [57]

Within a few years, however, the coffers of the Club were almost bare. Edith continued to borrow money from Swiss banks, and by March 1920 she would be over $800,000 in debt, which her father finally paid off for her. Unable to afford the lease and upkeep of the expensive building Harold had chosen, Edith bought the Psychological Club its own building on Gemeindestrasse, where it continues to operate today. John D. Rockefeller's money paid for all of this.

In his way, Harold, too, was trying to be a force of change in the world. Feeling more confident about his ability to think, in March, Harold wrote a long proposal for ending the war that he intended to be passed along to the leaders of the combative parties. His proposal -- entitled "Cash Value of Ultimate Peace Terms" -- was essentially a cost-benefit analysis of the situation. Using his new reasoning abilities, he constructed an argument based on the idea that war simply is too expensive. Harold believed that if everyone could only see his point, the war would come to a halt. He sent copies of his manuscript to the American ambassador to Switzerland and to President Wilson and other top officials. Harold received many polite responses, but nothing that indicated that anyone took him seriously. He circulated another proposal -- "Via Pacis" -- the following year, after the United States entered the war. [58] This time Harold got himself into hot water when he tried to send a copy directly to high-ranking German officials. The State and War Departments in Washington immediately sent an avalanche of cables to Harold and to the American ambassador to Switzerland to demand that Harold stop meddling in international affairs.

In May 1916, Fowler was accepted at Princeton University, and with his parents' permission he took off the year before college. Like Ernest Hemingway, Walt Disney, Dashiell Hammett, e. e. cummings, John Dos Passos, and hundreds of young men -- mostly from elite New England prep schools and the Ivy League -- Fowler signed on to be a member of the "Gentlemen Volunteers" of the first ambulance corps in France. [59] His enlistment was for three months beginning in July. Stationed in Paris, he repaired and reattached Model T Ford frames for the bodies of the ambulances. He certainly saw wounded soldiers, but never made it to the front.

On the first of October, he arrived in Zurich. After not seeing Fowler for more than a year, in which time Harold himself had learned to think psychologically through analysis, Harold immediately noticed certain qualities in his son he had never seen before. "Fowler reminds me so much of [his insane brother] Stanley I find myself often almost calling him by that name," Harold told his mother on October 18. Almost immediately, Fowler began analysis with Jung.

Now four members of the family -- Edith, Harold, Muriel, and Fowler -- were deeply involved in analysis with Jung or Maria Moltzer. Only Mathilde seems to have escaped analysis, but she was once again in the sanitarium in Davos.

The Secret Church

Edith and Harold were in the audience when Jung gave his stirring inaugural talk to the Zurich Psychological Club. Edith explained to Harold the references Jung made in German about the Holy Grail and Parsifal and the Rosicrucians. Jung confirmed for them that they were members of a Holy Order like the Grail knights and that their new "religious attitude" and the work they did on themselves would ultimately redeem the entire world. At this point, Jung rarely mentioned in public that the religious attitude he was teaching them was a pagan one, antithetical to Judeo-Christian orthodoxies; he only remarked that this attitude was a "new" one.

But almost from the very beginning, there were serious problems in the Club. For the first time, the analysts and their patients all had frequent exposure to one another on a regular basis. Rather than promoting social cohesion, discord ruled. And no one was more disruptive to the harmony of the Club than Jung himself. A variety of factors may have been responsible for this. Jung's personal life was in turmoil as he tried to work out a polygamous menage with Emma and Toni Wolff. His visions continued, and in the summer of 1916 his house was haunted by the dead Crusaders who had not found what they sought in Jerusalem.

The introduction of money and the international social status of the Rockefellers and the McCormicks into Jung's circle with the opening of the Club no doubt tempted many of his male colleagues to jockey for position and rank. They were astute enough to see that the gravy train had just pulled in, and they wanted to be on board. Some -- such as Alphonse Maeder, Hans Triib, Adolph Keller, and Hans Schmid -- subtly attempted to dethrone Jung by challenging his authority. Jung was never one to tolerate criticism -- especially in public -- and his anger seeped out in sarcasm and insults.

Jung eventually won the power struggle by winning most of the female members of the Club to his side and by making it too unpleasant for too many male analysts to remain. The majority of analysts who allied themselves with Jung in these early days were female; they did not question his authority. Like Kundry, they existed only to serve their Parsifal. They wanted to continue to participate in the mystery of the Holy Grail that Jung promised them.

Harold and Edith certainly witnessed Jung's darker side, but they always seemed to give him the benefit of a doubt. To use their terms, their transference to Jung made them too dependent upon him to allow contradictory information to intrude on their idealizations.

Yet on a Saturday evening at the club -- probably the night of October 14 -- something happened that upset everyone. We know how upset Fanny Bowditch became when she saw Jung "in the grip of his complexes," and from a previously unpublished document that Harold McCormick was deeply troubled about the atmosphere of his beloved club as well.

Emma Jung, who was president of the executive committee of the club, saw how upset Harold was and asked him to submit a report that outlined the social problems of the club and proposed solutions. Harold worked for almost a month polishing two rough first drafts into a final version that he then formally submitted on November 13, 1916. As with his previous proposals for ending the war, writing this report allowed Harold to practice thinking. Without ever mentioning Jung or anyone else by name, Harold made the following observations about the disharmony and in so doing gives us insight into the "guiding fictions" of this unusual spiritual community and its insular, utopian mentality:

The School of Zurich stands for a set of principles and a set of expediencies -- a set of uncompromising attitudes and a set of flexible ones.

The School stands, in the unfolding of its truths or beliefs, virtually against the world. There are too few at present in the School, and too many outside it to warrant any difference among those who espouse its cause ....

The School of Zurich and the Psychology Club are in one way two separate propositions, but in another sense they are identical in interest at the present time, owing to the fact that the extent of the membership of the Club makes this collective body almost coincident with that of the School of Zurich itself,-the Club being an expression of the ideas of the School.

Therefore what affects the Club affects the School and vice versa ....

Differences of opinion and views, ... are bound to percolate, if not to become transferred with increased velocity and intensity to the other. ... Reference herein, it may be said, is made not to those differences of personal view wherein only the individual is affected, nor to those differences which apply to the individual versus the community in general, but only to those differences the adherence to which affects the solidarity of the movement surrounding the School of Zurich and the Club and their natural and normal advance and progress .... Towards the School and Club there is a more definite obligation, it is suggested, than towards society in general. ...

It might be said with a good deal of truth that the School of Zurich is on trial, insofar as its relation to the outcome of the Club enterprise is concerned, for if 60 people in analysis cannot get along together, what can be expected for the future among 600 or 6000.

To-day the Club stands as the Citadel of the School as a whole; it is the Visible Church; the Workshop of which the School is the Laboratory. Many of the principles of the School are or should be lived out at the Club, and the living out in the Club life of these principles is one test of their value ....

It is ventured that no Club could possibly start with more given difficult situations to meet and deal with than confront the Psychology Club at this time and considering the relatively short time of its life and the fact that it entered the field as a stranger to all precedents, it can be marvelled that it has done as well as has been the case. Review the conditions and the component parts: a club to be devoted to intellectual pursuits; to social pursuits; a pension; a town club; a place for collateral society meetings; and a habitat for persons in various stages of Analysis. In this club are to be members of different nationalities, of trained divergent temperamental and psychic makeups, joining in the spirit of collectivity. Here congregate people of different mental calibre, of different "Bildung," and in different stages of analysis. Here come together the "analytiker" [the analyst] and the "analysand" [the patient] in fellowship ....

In addition to finding ourselves individually it would seem that another logical step might be finding our Collectivity with people who are in analysis, and some would take the view that this step is more difficult than with people who are unanalyzed. If this is true it would surely be for the very reasons which cause the present difficulties of our club life, and if again in turn this would be so, does it not show the more importance of getting at once to the seat of the trouble in a united way to work out this problem to a harmonious result. What is more undignified than the spectacle of orthodox religious circles fighting among themselves over "claimed-for" important questions, which to on-lookers or those desired to be convinced, seem often times trivial and unimportant. ...

I believe that unconsciously there is too much of an atmosphere of rank observed in the Club, the mental rank, and the rank between "analytiker" and "analysand" on the one hand, and as between people in various stages of analysis on the other. If this difficulty does exist it surely does not emanate principally from those in the higher rank, but rather on account of "transference" and lack of assertiveness on the part of those less assured. Still granting this, the remedy may be sought by cooperation from both sides. A kind act tendered at a personal sacrifice is one development. Such a kind act tendered with a contented spirit might be a still further development, helpful to our Club-life welfare. The mantle of "caste" should be laid aside at the threshold of the Club and the Natural Simple Human Relation assumed in its real aspect. [60]

Harold's reference to the club as the "Visible Church" reveals that he had been reading the works of Arthur Edward Waite, particularly his 1909 book The Hidden Church of the Holy Grail. Waite proposes that there has been an underground mystical tradition, pre-Christian in origin, whose truths have emerged in a disguised form in Hellenistic mystery cults, Gnosticism, Freemasonry, Rosicrucianism, alchemy, and particularly in the many legends of the Holy Grail. He refers to formal religious doctrines and institutions throughout history as the "Visible Church," which shows its face to the world. The visible church, however, is a mask for what Waite calls the "Hidden Church of Sacramental Mystery" or, more commonly, "The Secret Church." In his last chapter, Waite revealed the existence of this underground spiritual tradition throughout history. The Secret Church "is behind the Visible Church," and has always been kept alive by a chosen few. [61] Its existence has been hidden by rumors and "many literatures," which are "veils." [62] A mystical union with God and a spiritual regeneration or rebirth are experienced by those who are initiated into its mysteries. The Secret Church is therefore not an external or material construction that exists in space and time, for as Waite says, "If I may attempt one further definition, as the synthesis of all my statements -- echoing and reflecting all-I would describe the Secret Church as the integration of believers in the higher consciousness." [63]

In this final chapter we have all the elements of Jung's guiding fiction about the nature of his cult of followers in Zurich in 1916. [64] It was a fantasy that he would keep alive for them for the rest of his life. Together they were on a Grail quest and participated together in a mystery: the Secret Church. Jung used this metaphor quite often during these years, particularly in connection with the Mithraic mysteries, because Franz Cumont and other scholars thought that the secret underground mystery chambers in which the initiations took place were directly below actual visible churches where more formal rites were conducted.

Harold and Edith consciously believed that analysis with Jung was an initiation into this Secret Church, this Temple of the Holy Grail. Jung had told them it was.

This did not please John D. Rockefeller. He did not like the strange tone of Edith and Harold's letters. The "religious attitude" they both now espoused was unfamiliar to him. Despite all their talk of spirituality, it did not seem Christian to him, certainly not Baptist. In her annual letter to her father in 1916, Edith attempted to address tactfully these differences while letting him know that she and Harold had found their path together.

As it [the year] nears its close, we look onward with hope, confidence and trust. We know not what is ahead for us, but we do know that we have our home, we have found our path, so that while we know the road may be a hard one it will have its beauties.

You on your path have your philosophy and your religion which guide you. I on my path have my philosophy and my religion which guide me. That they differ makes no harm because we have love which makes the bond between us. [65]

Edith and Harold's new religion was analysis. Indeed, their acquaintance Fanny Bowditch was making such a statement to her diary in these same last months of 1916.

The final years in Zurich: 1917-1921

On January 18, 1917, Harold wrote, "Dear Mamma, Days roll by and some times I find myself wondering what, if anything, I am doing and accomplishing." As for Edith, "[she] is getting on her real feet every day -- had not been to Dr. Jung for a long while -- and is really independent more and more in spirit and in letter and gentle and tolerant of others and submissive and respective of the views of others, keeping her own individuality and strength at the same time." [66]

The war now occupied more and more of Harold and Edith's attention Together they sponsored charities to help prisoners of war, and Edith be came the secret patron of Irish writer and expatriate James Joyce. She pro vided him an anonymous monthly stipend that he picked up at a local Zurich bank. When he found out who his patron was, he came to the hotel to thank her. There is no record of their meeting, but Joyce later said she cut off her support when he refused to go into analysis with Jung or one of his disciples.

Harold felt that his marriage to Edith was blossoming as never before. "I must tell you in a word how lovely Edith is developing," he wrote to his mother on September 25. "You would not know her. All the lovely softness of her old attitude is returning with no loss of strength or firmness, but it is all so beautifully balanced. It is a charm to be with her. ... Her time is beautifully spent and profitable to herself and others." [67]

Edith spent her time teaching others about analysis and philosophy and seeing her own patients. "I am teaching six hours a day besides my own studies," she told her father in November. [68] A year later, she informed him, "I am so happy in my work, and go on generally from day to day, seeing very few people outside of those who come to me for their work." [69] Her new occupation as a psychoanalyst proved to fit in nicely with her agora phobia: She never had to worry about leaving the hotel except for walks or club functions.

"New patients are coming to me all the time," Edith told her father in March 1919, "and I have had some fifty cases now. I hear in a year twelve thousand dreams. This work is very concentrated and very different, -- but so intensely interesting. It is so beautiful to see life and joy come into the eyes of those who have come to me so hopeless and seemingly lost!" [70]

In May 1918, Harold McCormick finally returned to the United States. His business had been threatened by the war and by his prolonged absence. By the end of 1918 he became president of the International Harvester Company. His life was consumed with business. There was no more time to analyze his dreams or read books by Nietzsche or about the Holy Grail. The most immediate historical consequence of Harold's return to America is that the paper trail ends. Edith rarely wrote letters, and the few she did were never very informative. What she did with her patients for the last three years of her life in Zurich is still a mystery.

With his wife and most of his family in Switzerland, and with no "analyzed people" to talk to in America, Harold felt quite lonely. Used to talking out his problems in Zurich, he had no one to turn to in Chicago. In June 1919, Emma Jung sent Harold a short letter telling him that she had recently seen Edith, which was unusual. After Harold returned to America no one seemed to see Edith except her patients. On Sunday, June 29,1919, while with his mother at their Lake Forest estate, Harold wrote a rambling, nostalgic, depressed letter in which he poured out all his concerns and misgivings. It came to eighteen pages.?1 He never sent it, but it reveals that Harold was finding it difficult to cope without his usual support system.

Nettie McCormick was glad to have her son home, but she could not understand why Edith kept her grandchildren in Switzerland. Nettie cut out a newspaper article very critical of psychoanalysis entitled "Paralysis by Analysis" and sent it to Harold in August 1919. The author of the piece argued that this new technique of psychoanalysis made people worse, not better, because the incessant focusing of attention on one's inner thoughts and problems weakened their free will and rendered them incapable of making decisions for themselves. Harold was not pleased. "Radicals and zealots in all new movements go to extremes," he wrote back a few days later, "and in 'Analysis' we who believe in it are prone to go to extremes and make our paths difficult." Harold insisted that he, for one, was not paralyzed by analysis but indeed quite the opposite. "All the above means that I believe in action and decision, and if there is one thing that Dr. Jung does in his life, it is to decide things quickly, but for others this comes more painfully and more slowly until they have reached a certain point." The charges made in the article, Harold told her, are "not supported by the teachings of the school of psychoanalysis in Zurich." [72] Harold sent Nettie's letter and a copy of the article to Edith, Toni Wolff, Fowler, and Bea trice Hinkle. Hinkle told him not to expect too much from his mother, "You see," she wrote on September 26, "it is practically impossible for another person, no matter what their relation and how close the bond -- indeed the closer the bond usually the more difficult, to understand what analysis really means to those of us who have experienced and thereby gained our knowledge." [73]

In the last week of September, a young woman by the name of Ganna Walska called on Harold while he was in New York City. She was young, vivacious, Polish, and claimed to have sung opera with Caruso in Cuba. Harold contacted the Chicago Opera Company and asked them to give her an audition. A friendship ensued. Harold was captivated by her.

To sort out his feelings, Harold went to Washington, D.C., in the first week of March 1920 to visit his cousin Medill McCormick, now a United States senator. The two men traded books by Freud and Jung, and Medill reminded him of Zurich and the lessons about life -- and polygamy -- Jung had taught them. He reminded Harold of the dangers of being too one-sided and of not heeding the primal call of life. On Senate stationery, Medill urged him to pursue "Your rediscovery of the joie de vivre." [74]

Harold's sexual affair with Ganna Walska began.

Meanwhile, in Zurich, Edith had formed an intimate bond of some sort with one of her Swiss patients, a gold digger and former gardener named Edwin Krenn. Younger than Edith, he claimed to have promise as an architect. Edith believed him and took him under her wing, convinced she could liberate his genius.

Mathilde and Muriel wrote anxious letters to their father, begging him to come to Zurich immediately. Harold put off his trip until late September 1920 and then only stayed for a month. Ganna Walska had become the most important person in his life. Harold told his father-in-law that he wanted to divorce Edith. In September 1921, Edith arrived in New York accompanied by Edwin Krenn. She went immediately to Pocantico Hills to meet with her older brother, John D. Rockefeller, Jr. But the word was not good: The Rockefeller men sided with Harold. The divorce went through in record time.

Edith did not see her father on this trip, and had not seen him since 1912. She never would again. On December 28, 1921, the marriage between the princess of Standard Oil and the prince of International Harvester was officially over. In August 1922, Harold married Ganna Walska in Paris. They were divorced in 1931. Harold married once more in his life, a brief but happy union with Adah Wilson from 1938 until his death in 1941.

Both daughters were soon married as well, as was Fowler. In 1931 he wed Mrs. Anne Urquhart ("Fifi") Stillman, who was nineteen years his senior, with four children from her previous marriage. She was the mother of one of Fowler's classmates at Princeton. He and Fifi never had children of their own. Fowler maintained his friendship with Jung and became one of his favorite traveling companions in the last forty years of Jung's life. When Jung came to America in 1925 he took an automobile trip to see the Grand Canyon and visit the Taos Indians in New Mexico. On this trip Jung taught Fowler how to use the divinatory device known as the I Ching and revealed that Toni Wolff had been his mistress for at least a decade.

Fowler McCormick rose through the ranks of his father's company and became chairman of the board in 1946. However, he was "asked" to resign in 1951 by the board. During this palace coup, he consulted the I Ching and kept detailed records of the advice of the oracle. In 1960, during one of his many summertime visits to Jung, he had his astrology chart done by Gret Bauman, Jung's daughter. Fowler died at seventy-five in Palm Desert, California, in January 1974.

As for Edith, soon after her arrival in America she returned to her "bastion" at 1000 Lake Shore Drive and emerged only to go on strolls through the grove of trees on her property, which she called the "bosky." She lived with her servants and Edwin Krenn. She continued to contribute to philanthropic organizations in Chicago and somehow built up a small private practice. She also held occasional seances and interpreted her patients' astrology charts. Her belief in reincarnation grew. After reading of the discovery of the tomb of King Tut, Edith began to tell her intimates that she was the reincarnation of Tutankhamen's child bride, the Princess Anknesenpaaten.

After she left Zurich, Edith's Swiss chauffeur sold his story to the Schweizer Illustrierten, a popular magazine that often ran celebrity gossip. It depicted Edith in a very unflattering light. "Her chauffeur liked to tell scandals about her," remembered Herman Muller, Jung's own chauffeur and gardener. [75] The story was reprinted many times over the years, including shortly after Edith's death.

In 1930, Edith had a mastectomy after a cancerous growth was discovered on one of her breasts. Two years later the cancer had spread to her liver. By then, almost broke, Edith had moved to a suite of rooms in the Drake Hotel in Chicago and waited to die. Her children all came to be near her, and even Harold made repeated visits. She died on August 25, 1932.

Harold, Fowler, John D. Rockefeller, Jr., and Edwin Krenn were among the pallbearers at her funeral. Harold, ever the feeling type, was sensitive to Krenn's intimacy with Edith and made sure he was included, even over the protests of Edith's brother. There is good reason to suspect that Harold and his brother-in-law immediately burned all her diaries and personal papers relating to her analysis. There was no need for further scandal.

From Switzerland, telegrams and letters poured in from Adolph Keller, then the president of the Zurich Psychological Club, Hans Trub, and from other former acquaintances in the club. Harold received a touching four-page handwritten letter of sympathy from Emma Jung. "Hers seems a tragic fate ... I feel great pity for her," she wrote, acknowledging that the period the McCormicks spent in Zurich marked an important period in her life. [76] Emma invited Harold to Kusnacht and mentioned that she and Jung had been vacationing at the Tower, where Jung remained after she'd left. What Emma did not mention to Harold was that Jung was not in the Tower alone.

And from the Tower the following one-line telegram had arrived for Harold from Edith's ex-analyst: "Thanks and warm sympathy for old times sake. Toni Wolff Dr Jung." [77]

Go to Next Page

Exit Survey

I am interested in:
Law and Government
Visual Arts
Cinema
Health
Music
Religion
Philosphy

I came to the Library:
To write a class paper
To do other research
To read for pleasure
Other

How I got here:
Been here before
Teacher referred me
Search Engine
Someone else referred me

How I feel about the Library:
Will return
Will refer others
Probably won't return
Skip Survey